Митра

Издание было подготовлено индийским учёным Рāджендралāлом Митрой и вышло в серии «Bibliotheca Indica», выпускавшейся Азиатским обществом Бенгалии, востоковедческой организацией, основанной в Калькутте в 1784 году. Членами общества в разное время были зачинатели западной санскритологии: Горас Гайман Вильсон, Чарльз Уилкинс и т.д.
У общества есть официальный интернет-сайт:
http://www.asiaticsocietycal.com/
В доступном мне варианте издания на обороте титульного листа от руки каллиграфическим почерком выведены даты: «1881, Dec, 20 – 1883, Sept, 2». Есть все основания полагать, что это – период работы над переводом. Хотя предисловие датировано 28 января 1883 года.

Воспоминания самого переводчика:
«When the Asiatic Society of Bengal first proposed to publish an edition of the Yoga-sūtra with the commentary of Bhojadeva, I undertook to reprint Dr. Ballantyne’s translation with such additions as would complete the work. I soon founded, however, that my work placed beside his produced a very patched appearance, and his parenthetical style was not desirable for a proper and easy understanding of the text. I preferred, therefore, to translate the whole in my own way. Tha aphorisms will be found to be as closely literal as the idiom of the English language would admit of, and the commentary a fair reproduction of the spirit, sense ans wording of the original, without being a verbatim reproduction» [Митра: lxxxix].

Об использованных в работе списках:
«Manuscripts of the Yoga-sūtra are common enough in Bengal, but I have not met with any particularly old, or exceptionally correct text. In carrying the text and commentary through the press, I had the use of the following codices:
A. From the Asiatic Society’s Library, yellow paper 13 x 11 inches, bound in a 4to. volume. Bengali character. Lines, 27 on a page. Incorrect.
B. From the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, yellow paper, 17 x 4 inches, puthi form. Folia, 35. Character, Bengali. Generally correct.
C. From ditto, Kashmīrī paper, 10 x 4½ inches. Folia, 69. Character, well-written Nāgarī. Date, Samvat, 1850. Generally correct.
D. From the Benares College, Kashmīrī paper, 11 x 5 inches. Folia, 30. Character, Nāgarī. Incorrect and incomplete.
E. From Professor Maheśacandra Nyayaratna, Calcutta, yellow paper, 15 x 4 inches. Folia, 55. Character, Bengali. Generally correct. First chapter revised.
G. Ballantyne’s reprint annexed to his translation.
H. From Bombay, copied for me from a MS. belonging to the Government collection preserved in the office of the Director of Public Instructions. Generally correct.
I. From my family Library, a quarto volume in Bengali. Corrupt and little used.
In the text of Patanjali, no variations of any note has been met with in the above codices. The work appears to have been preserved with every care, as may be presumed from tha circumstance of its having enjoyed the benefit of a host of commentaries and glosses. The commentary of Bhoja has not been so correctly preserved. Thare are many differences of reading in the different codices. But on the whole the differences are not so material as would justify the assumption of different recensions, or produce anyy marked changes in the meaning of the author» [Митра: xci-xcii].

О трудностях:
«Much difficulty has been felt in the treatment of the technical terms. Philosophical terms in the English language have not yet at that fixity and firmness which would preclude possible variations. Different writers assign different values to even well-established terms, and their latitude is frequently varying; and such as they are, they are not exact equivalents of Sanskrit words, which in their turn vary in meaning under different circumstances and in the hands of different writers. Thera are instances, too, of Sanskrit terms whose literal sugnifications are very different from the philosophical ideas they are intended to convey, and in dealing with them, the translator has either to sacrifice precision of rendering for the sake of intelligibility, or intelligibility for the sake of precision. In the following pages I have borrowed the terms mostly from Colebrooke’s translation of the Sānkhya-karikā, translating a few myself, and transliterating the Sanskrit terms in some cases…
When I undertook the task I had hopes of reading the work with the assistance of a professional Yogī; but I have been disappointed. I fould find no Pandit in Bengal who had made Yoga the special subject of his study, and the only person I met at Benares who could help me was the most exorbitant in his demands. He cared not for the world and its wealth, and the only condition under which he would teach me was strict pupillage under Hindu rules – living ih his hut and ever following his footsteps – to which I could not submit. I had, therefore, to depend on my own knowledge of the Sanskrit language to arrive at the meaning of Patanjali, availing myself frequently of the aid of my learned friend Professor Maheśacandra Nyayaratna, of the Calcutta Sanskrit College, for the solution of difficulties. I had the assistance, too, of Professor Kamakhynatha Tarkaratna, of that College, both in revising the text and in translating it. Both the Professors are distinguished Nyāya scholars, and Pandit Maheśacandra commands a deep knowledge off the Sankhya, and with their aid, I believe, I have been able to avoid gross misinterpretations of the text, though I cannot flatter myself with the idea that I have been able always satisfactory to expound the meaning of Patanjali»[Митра: lxxxxix-xci].

Из интересного:
1. Митра согласен с тем, что название системы йоги звучит как Йога-анущасана: «The name of the Yoga system as we now have it is Yogānuśāsana, or ‘the Institutes of the Yoga’. This name, however, is rarely used» [Митра: xxiv].
2. В 1885 году, через два года после выхода перевода в свет, Рāджендралāл Митра стал первым неангличанином, занявшим пост президента Азиатского общества Бенгалии.

См. также:
Митра об авторе Раджа-мартанды.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *